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Overview Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer in which the white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets are attacked by bone marrow, which is a soft inner part of the bones. Without proper treatment, acute myeloid leukemia can be fatal, as it can spread very quickly to the blood and other parts of the body. Fever, fatigue, and bleeding are symptoms of the disease. Leukemia mainly targets the red and white blood cells and platelets. Acute myeloid leukemia is also known as acute myelocytic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, acute granulocytic leukemia, and acute non-lymphocytic leukemia. The disease can affect liver, brain, spinal cord, lymph nodes, and testicles

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Symptoms

There are a number of symptoms of AML, which may include: Fever. Fatigue. Loss of weight. Night sweats. Dizziness. Headaches. Feeling cold all the time. Weakness. Shortness of breath. Joint pain. Painful bleeding gums. Vomiting.


Causes

AML is caused due to destruction of DNA inside the cells of the bones, which is called a bone marrow. Causes of this disease include: Imbalance in blood cells. Use of certain chemicals and chemotherapy drugs.


Diagnosis

The disease needs to be diagnosed at the earliest to ensure quick treatment. , the doctor will begin by examining patient history, and conduct a physical test. The tests for the diagnosis include: Taking a blood test Peripheral blood smear Biopsy Cytogenetic analysis Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction tests


Treatments

Chemotherapy It is the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells by stopping the ability of cancer cells to grow and divide. It is one of the primary treatments for AML. It is delivered via the bloodstream to reach cancer cells throughout the body. Bone marrow transplant It is a medical procedure, in which the bone marrow that has leukemia is destroyed and is replaced by highly specialised cells. Radiation therapy It is a procedure that makes use of high-energy X-rays to destroy the cancer cells. It is used when leukemia cells have spread to the brain.


Prevention

AML is not preventable, but precautions can be taken to reduce the chances of getting the disease. The measures of prevention include: Quitting smoke. Avoiding the use of certain drugs and chemicals (especially cancer-related chemicals and chemotherapy).


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